CNN10 Aired May 13, 2019 和訳 スチューデントニュース

CNN 10 - May 13, 2019

CNN 10
U.S. and China Trade Dispute Heats Up on Both Sides of the Pacific; Transcontinental Railroad Turns 150 Years Old; Study Suggests Wasps Are Capable of Transitive Inference
Aired May 13, 2019

CARL AZUZ, CNN 10 ANCHOR: We kick off a new week of news coverage on CNN 10. A stand off between the U.S. and China is making headlines on both sides of the Pacific. That`s the first subject we`re explaining today, I`m Carl Azuz. It`s good to have you watching. Tariffs, additional taxes, are kicking in on many of the goods that the United States imports from China. The two countries have been holding meetings and negotiations for months but after they failed to reach a trade deal last week, the new U.S. tariffs took effect. And the U.S. government expects China will retaliate with tariffs of its own as China has said it would.
Why is this happening? There`s a trade deficit between America and China. The U.S. imports more goods from China than it exports to China and that`s something that U.S. President Donald Trump has called unacceptable. He also says China hasn`t been fair in its trade practices. After the two countries issued back and forth tariffs on each others goods last year, they held a series of talks to try to reach a solution. But when a deal wasn`t reached last Friday, the U.S. government raised its tariff rate from 10 percent to 25 percent on about $200 billion worth of Chinese goods. Why did the talks break down? The U.S. government says China went back on promises it made earlier in the negotiations.
China says it hopes the U.S. will meet it halfway and resolve their differences through cooperation. What happens next? Well in addition to the question about how and when China will respond is the question about how much the new tariffs will effect the world`s two biggest economies.
President Trump`s top economic advisor says U.S. economic growth would see an impact but that it would be very small and that the improved trade deal that`s possible would make the consequences worth while. Still, the government does expect that both countries would feel a pinch.
新しい週が始まりました。 CNN 10は、まずアメリカと中国の貿易摩擦について取り上げます。カール・アズーズがお伝えします。アメリカが中国から輸入する様々な品物に対し、追加の関税を発動しています。両国は数ヶ月にわたり交渉を重ねてきましたが、先週合意に達することはできずアメリカは追加関税率を引き上げました。アメリカ政府は、中国がその言葉通り報復措置を取ると予想しています。ではいきさつを見てみましょう。アメリカと中国の間には貿易赤字が存在します。アメリカは中国からより多くを輸入をしていて、トランプ大統領は容認しがたいと発言しています。また中国の貿易慣行は公正ではないとも主張しています。去年アメリカと中国はお互いに報復合戦を行い、解決策を求めて協議を重ねました。しかし、先週金曜日、合意をまとめることはできず、アメリカ政府はおよそ2000億ドル相当の中国からの輸入品に対し関税を10%から25%に引き上げました。交渉はなぜ決裂したのでしょうか。アメリカ政府は中国が先の交渉でまとめた約束を守らなかったと言っています。中国はアメリカが歩み寄り協力して意見の対立を解消することを望むと言っています。今後中国がいつどの程度対抗するかに加えて、追加関税が世界の2大経済大国にどのような影響を与えるかが懸念されます。トランプ大統領のトップ経済顧問は、アメリカの経済成長は影響を受けてもごくわずかであり、より良い貿易協定は価値ある結果を生み出すだろうと述べています。しかしながら、アメリカ政府は両国ともに痛手を受けるだろうと見ています。


TOM FOREMAN, CNN JOURNALIST: Despite friendly handshakes between Team Trump and the Chinese delegates, trade talks have stalled. No deal on the horizon - -


FOREMAN: - - and no sign of President Trump giving an inch on the 25 percent tariff he`s launched on Chinese goods.

TRUMP: I happen to think the tariffs for our country are very powerful. You know, we`re the piggy bank that everybody steals from including China.

FOREMAN: But American consumers could soon feel a greater impact if the tariffs expand to consumer products is threatened. China would be expected to pass on those expenses jacking up prices on Smartphones, computers, televisions, fitness trackers and much more. The extra cost for the average American family of four is expected to be close to $800. What could drive it? Three quarters of the toys bought in the U.S. are made in China, including these hugely popular dolls. Ninety-three percent of Chinese made footwear including some shoes for Nike could be hit, so could clothing, Bluetooth headsets and even drones.
Trump`s tariffs on China last year steered away from consumer goods and focused on industrial items such as solar panels, steel and aluminum. Those costs were passed on by American companies.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: American consumers are already paying. They - - they just don`t really know it`s kind of a stealth tax. But it`s going to become a very obvious tax not to - - not to far from now if this - - if this continues.

FOREMAN: The major markets are already showing unease over the clash. In the next three years of China and the U.S. continue warring over trade, economists say both countries could see their economies slow down, and close to a million American jobs might be lost. Still the president has long insisted China is cheating the U.S. by stealing intellectual property, manipulating currency and most recently reneging on a framework for a deal. And he`s convinced China will blink first tweeting, tariffs will make our country much stronger, not weaker. Just sit back and watch. The treasury secretary has called the talks constructive but that doesn`t tell us much about how long the impasse might last or how far the impact may reach.
Tom Foreman, CNN, Washington.
アメリカ、中国の政府代表は有効的に握手を交わしましたが、貿易交渉は上手くいきませんでした。合意のまとまる見通しは立っていません。そしてトランプ大統領が、中国輸入品に対する25%の関税を撤回する兆しもありません。我が国の関税はとても強力です。アメリカは中国も含め誰もが盗める貯金箱になっています。中国もそれはできないのです。しかし関税対象が消費者向け製品に拡大されると、アメリカ国民はより大きな影響を感じるでしょう。中国はそのコストをスマートフォン、コンピュータ、テレビ、フィットネス用品などに上乗せする可能性があります。平均的な四人のアメリカ人家庭の負担額はおよそ800ドルと見られます。とても人気のあるこの人形を含めて、アメリカで販売されているおもちゃの四分の三は中国製です。ナイキのスニーカーを含めた中国製の靴93%が影響を受けるかもしれません。衣類、 Bluetooth のイヤホン、ドローンも然りです。去年トランプ大統領が中国にかけた関税は消費者向け製品ではなく、ソーラーパネル、スチールアルミなどの工業製品が対象でした。そのコストはアメリカ企業に添加されたのです。アメリカの消費者は既に目に見えない形でその費用を負担していますが、今後もこの状況が続けばあからさまな値上げに直面するでしょう。主な市場はすでに米中貿易摩擦を受け不安定な動きを示しています。エコノミストは、この状態が続けば今後3年で両国の経済は減速し、アメリカで100万の雇用が失われる可能性があると指摘しています。トランプ大統領は以前から中国が知的財産を盗み、為替を操作し、最近では協定の枠組みを反故にしていると批判してきました。そして最初に折れるのは中国の方だと確信していて、関税はアメリカをより弱くするものではなくより強くするもの、落ち着いて様子を見守ろうとツイートしています。財務長官は交渉は建設的だったと述べましたが、この難局がいつまで続くのか、どこまで影響が広がるかについては行き先不透明です。

AZUZ: 10 Second Trivia. Which of these U.S. landmarks was completed or installed in 1869? The Statue of Liberty, Mt. Rushmore, Transcontinental Railroad, or Washington Monument. It was in May of 1869, 150 years ago, that the Transcontinental Railroad was completed.
The place where that happened is Promontory Summit. It`s part of present day Utah. The Transcontinental Railroad joined the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads but this wasn`t just an event that fitted two different rail lines together. It was a turning point in American history. Before 1869 the railroads the crisscrossed the American east went only about as far as St. Louis, Missouri. If you wanted to go west from there or really anywhere from the Mississippi River, you had to travel by wagon. That was more dangerous and the trip took three to six months. With the Transcontinental Railroad in place, travelers could get from New York to California in one week. So even in 1869, people knew the railroad`s completion was significant.
The hard labor was carried out by veterans of the U.S. Civil War, former slaves who`d been freed during that war. Irish immigrants who`d fled the potato famine and thousands of workers from China who`d blasted, axed, and hammered the tunnels through the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The railroads completion through gasoline on the fire of America`s westward expansion.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: So from sea to shining sea, train depots, train museums and trains themselves marking the 150th anniversary. I am on the Grand Canyon Railway, you can see how beautiful it is. It connects Williams, Arizona with Grand Canyon National Park. Many people are enjoying the scenery and time talking to other folks including Pam (ph) here. This is her birthday month. Describe what this has been like for you.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: This is such a treat. It`s beautiful. The scenery is beautiful. It`s relaxing. I love it.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE : And if you go a little further down the road here, thank you so much and happy birthday Pam (ph), you can see Ramblin` Rose (ph) and what have you been doing today?

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: This is what I`ve been doing all day.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: You have a song for us?

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: "I`ve been workin` on the railroad. All the live long day. I`ve been working on the railroad just to pass the time away."

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Thank you so much Rambin` Rose (ph) from Tennessee. Found herself on a train here in Arizona and this is all part of the history and if you think about this event, it was the railroad that opened up the western United States. The country has not been connected before. For the passengers on the Grand Central Railway, the trip stopped right here, the Grand Canyon, El Tovar Overlook a magnificent vista. Look below.
There`s where the Colorado River carved out its path century, after century, after century. For the riders on the train, it was all a commemoration of that 150th Anniversary of the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad and they got a little memento here. Look at this. It`s their own version of the golden spike. Reporting from the Grand Canyon, I`m Paul Vercammen. Now back to you.
1869年までの鉄道網は頭部を縦横に走ってはいたものの、西はミズリー州セントルイスまででそれより西、ミシシッピ川以西に行く手段は馬車しかありませんでした。危険も多く3ヶ月から6ヶ月かかりました。大陸横断鉄道の開通で、ニューヨークからカリフォルニアまで一週間で行けるようになったのです。1869年の社会にとって大変な出来事だったのです。重労働になったのは、南北戦争の復員兵や、その南北戦争で解放された奴隷達、ジャガイモ飢饉を逃ればだって北アイルランド移民、そして数千人の中国人労働者などでした。シエラネバダ山脈の岩盤を爆破し、のみや金槌で掘り進めました鉄道の完成により、アメリカ西部開拓に拍車がかかりました。海から輝ける海まで、車両基地、鉄道博物館そして列車も150周年を祝っています。私が寝ているのはグランドキャニオン鉄道、アリゾナ州ウィリアムエストグランドキャニオン国立公園を結んでいます。大勢の人が景観を楽しんでいます。こちらの PAM さんは今月お誕生日だそうです。どうですか?満喫しています。美しい景色をのんびりと楽しんでいます。ありがとうございました。そしてハッピーバースデー。そしてこちらは Rambling Rose さん。今日は1日何をなさってたんですか?これです。歌ってくれますか?ありがとうございました。テネシー州出身のRambling Rose さん。アリゾナを走る列車からのパフォーマンスでした。ここで歴史が作られてきたわけです。鉄道により合衆国西部は開拓されてきました。それまで国はつながっていませんでした。グランドセントラル鉄道の終点はここ。グランドキャニオンの エルトーバオーバールッックです。眼下に絶景が広がります。コロラド川の流れにより何世紀にもわたり侵食されていた地形。特別列車では大陸横断鉄道完成150周年を祝う様々なイベントが催され、こんなお土産もあります。当時鉄道に使われた犬釘、あのゴールデンスパイクのレプリカです。

AZUZ: A new study is shedding new light on wasps and generating some scientific buzz. Researchers say a certain type of wasp may use transitive inference. This allows people and animals to learn that if A is greater than B and B is greater than C, than A is greater than C. Simple for us but what about insects. Scientists took paper wasps which are found on almost every continent and put them in a rectangular chamber with two colors in it. Some of the colors were more likely to be charged with a mild electric shock and researchers say the wasps learned which colors were safer.
For example, if blue rarely shocked them. Green sometimes shocked them and purple often shocked them. The wasps could demonstrate most of the time that choosing blue and green were safer than choosing purple even when only two of these colors were presented at once. What`s interesting here is that honeybees which have the same sized brains as paper wasps, failed this test so one takeaway was that the wasp`s behavior maybe more socially complex than that of the bees. This was the first study that showed an invertebrate may use transitive inference. 

Hard to say if robots will one day win a battle of the bands. In this trio at China`s Tsing Hua University, the drummer has four arms so that`s an advantage but while the flutists doesn`t need to breathe, it`s also unable to feel the music. Becoming a tuned to the nuances of the notes like humans can. The performance was arranged by teachers, graduates and students and timed to coincide with the university`s 108th anniversary. So while some human musicians might see this as a "trebeling" sign, and seem a little "downbeat" at the thought of robots becoming "majorly instrumental".
Striking a "chord" with concert audiences, people "oct" to have nothing to fear. There`s "pia" no way very "harmany" machines have the same "ensembilities" as humans. They`re more virtual than "virtuoso". Creativity isn`t their "forte". Critics would say they`re too robotic and may even sound "sympony". I`m Carl Azuz for CNN.
ロボットのバンドが人気を席巻する日が将来来るのかはわかりませんが、中国の清華大学でお披露目されたこちらの三重奏トリオ。ドラマは腕が4本あります、これは有利です。フルート奏者は息継ぎの必要がありません。しかし人間のように音を感じ微妙な音色を奏でることはできません。演奏会は大学の108周年記念に合わせて教授、 OB 、学生らが共同で取り組みました。人間の演奏家にとって不吉な予兆と気持ちが下がるかもしれません。ロボットが楽器を演奏する主役となり、聴衆の心に訴えることができるようになってしまうのか。恐れるに足らず。機械の弾くピアノもハーモニーも、人のアンサンブルの力にはかないません。どんな名演奏でも、あくまでもバーチャル。クリエイティブな作業には強くなく、批評家からは機械的で魂がこもっていないなどと言われてしまいそうです 。